Operative Management of Adult Blunt Hepatic Trauma


  1. McIntyre RC, Moore FA, Davis JW, Cocanour CS, West MA, Moore EE Jr. Western Trauma Association critical decisions in trauma: foreword. J Trauma. 2008;65:1005–1006.
  2. Lucas CE, Ledgerwood AM. The academic challenge of teaching psychomotor skills for hemostasis of solid organ injury. J Trauma. 2009;66:636–640.
  3. Lee SK, Carrillo EH. Advances and changes in the management of liver injuries. Am Surg. 2007;73:201–206.
  4. Richardson JD. Changes in the management of injuries to the liver and spleen. J Am Coll Surg. 2005;200:648–669.
  5. Tinkoff G, Esposito T, Reed J, et al. American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Organ Injury Scale I: spleen, liver, and kidney, validation based on the National Trauma Data Bank. J Am Coll Surg. 2008;207:646–655.
  6. Pringle JH. Notes on the arrest of hepatic hemorrhage due to trauma. Ann Surg. 1908;48:541–548.
  7. Madding GF, Lawrence KB, Kennedy PA. Forward surgery of the severely wounded. Second Auxiliary Surgical Group 1945;1:307.
  8. Madding GF, Lawrence KB, Kennedy PA. Forward surgery of the severely wounded. US Army Bull. 1946;5:579.
  9. Madding GF. Injuries of the liver. Arch Surg. 1955;70:748 –756.
  10. McClelland R, Shires T, Poulos E. Hepatic resection for massive trauma. J Trauma 1964;4:282–291.
  11. Aaron S, Fulton RL, Mays ET. Selective ligation of the hepatic artery for trauma of the liver. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1975;141:187–189.
  12. Schrock T, Blaisdell FW, Mathewson C Jr. Management of blunt trauma to the liver and hepatic veins. Arch Surg. 1968;96:698 –704.
  13. Lin TY. A simplified technique for hepatic resection: the crush method. Ann Surg. 1974;180:285–290.
  14. Pachter HL, Spencer FC. Recent concepts in the treatment of hepatic trauma: facts and fallacies. Ann Surg. 1979;190:423– 429.
  15. Stone HH, Lamb JM. Use of pedicled omentum as an autogenous pack for control of hemorrhage in major injuries of the liver. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1975;141:92–94.
  16. Lucas CE, Ledgerwood AM. Prospective evaluation of hemostatic techniques for liver injuries. J Trauma. 1976;16:442– 451.
  17. Calne RY, McMaster P, Pentlow BD. The treatment of major liver trauma by primary packing with transfer of patient for definitive treatment. Br J Surg. 1979;66:338 –339.
  18. Feliciano DV, Mattox KL, Jordan GL Jr. Intra-abdominal packing for control of hepatic hemorrhage: a reappraisal. J Trauma. 1981;21:285–290.
  19. Elerding SC, Arragon GE, Moore EE. Fatal hepatic hemorrhage after trauma. Am J Surg 1979;138:883– 888.
  20. Kashuk JL, Moore EE, Millikan JS, Moore JB. Major abdominal vascular trauma—a unified approach. J Trauma. 1982;22:672– 679.
  21. Stone HH, Strom PR, Mullins RJ. Management of the major coagulopathy with onset during laparotomy. Ann Surg. 1983;197:532–535.
  22. Burch JM, Ortiz VB, Richardson RJ, Martin RR, Mattox KL, Jordan GL. Abbreviated laparotomy and planned reoperation for critically injured patients. Ann Surg. 1992;215:476–483.
  23. Cotton BA, Gunter OL, Isbell J, et al. Damage control hematology: the impact of a trauma exsanguination protocol on survival and blood product utilization. J Trauma. 2008;64:1177–1182.
  24. Sihler KC, Napolitano LM. Complications of massive transfusion. Chest. 2010;137:209 –220.
  25. Ramkumar K, Perera MT, Marudanayagam R, et al. A reaudit of specialist-managed liver trauma after establishment of regional referral and management guidelines. J Trauma. 2010;68:84–89.
  26. Demetriades D. Balloon tamponade for bleeding control in penetrating liver injuries. J Trauma. 1998;44:538 –539.
  27. Rotondo MF, Schwab CW, McGonigal MD, et al. ‘Damage control’: an approach for improved survival in exsanguinating penetrating abdominal injury. J Trauma. 1993;35:375–383.
  28. Asensio JA, Roldan G, Petrone P, et al. Operative management and outcomes in 103 AAST-OIS grades IV and V complex hepatic injuries: trauma surgeons still need to operate, but angioembolization helps. J Trauma. 2003;54:647– 654.
  29. Feliciano DV, Mattox KL, Burch JM, Bitondo CG, Jordan GL Jr. Packing for control of hepatic hemorrhage. J Trauma. 1986;26:738–743.
  30. Cogbill TH, Moore EE, Jurkovich GJ, Feliciano DV, Morris JA, Mucha P. Severe hepatic trauma: a multicenter experience with 1,335 liver injuries. J Trauma. 1088;28:20:438–444.
  31. Cheatham ML, Safcsak K. Is the evolving management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome improving survival? Crit Care Med. 2010;38:402–407.
  32. Cheatham ML, Malbrain ML, Kirkpatrick A, et al. Results from the International Conference of Experts on Intra-abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. II. Recommendations. Intensive Care Med. 2007;33:951–962.
  33. Misselbeck TS, Teicher E, Cipolle M, et al. Hepatic angioembolization in trauma patients: indications and complications. J Trauma. 2009;67: 769–773.
  34. Johnson JW, Gracias VH, Gupta R, et al. Hepatic angiography in patients undergoing damage control laparotomy. J Trauma. 2002;52:1102–1106.
  35. Dabbs DN, Stein DM, Scalea TM. Major hepatic necrosis: a common complication after angioembolization for treatment of high-grade injuries. J Trauma. 2009;66:621– 627.
  36. Mohr AM, Lavery RF, Barone A, et al. Angiographic embolization for liver injuries: low mortality, high morbidity. J Trauma. 2003;55:1077– 1082.
  37. Pachter HL, Spencer FC, Hofstetter SR, Liang HG, Coppa GF. Significant trends in the management of hepatic trauma. Experience with 411 injuries. Ann Surg. 1992;215:492–500.
  38. Pachter HL, Feliciano DV. Complex hepatic injuries. Surg Clin North Am. 1996;76:763–782.
  39. Feliciano DV, Mattox KL, Jordan GL, Burch JM, Bitondo CG, Cruse PA. Management of 1000 cases of hepatic trauma (1979 –1984). Ann Surg. 1986;204:438–445.
  40. Mays ET, Conti S, Fallahzadeh H, Rosenblatt M. Hepatic artery ligation. Surgery. 1979;86:536 –543.
  41. Lucas CE, Ledgerwood AM. Liver necrosis following hepatic artery transection due to trauma. Arch Surg. 1978;113:1107.
  42. Buckman RF, Miraliakbari R, Badellino MM. Juxtahepatic venous injuries: a critical review of reported management strategies. J Trauma. 2000;48:978 –984.
  43. Baumgartner F, Scudamore C, Nair C, Karusseit O, Hemming A. Venovenobypass for major hepatic and caval trauma. J Trauma. 1995; 39:671– 673.
  44. Sam AD, Frusha JD, McNeil JW, Olinde AJ. Repair of a blunt traumatic inferior vena cava laceration with commercially available endografts. J Vasc Surg. 2006;43:841– 843.
  45. Emergency endovascular repair for traumatic injury of the inferior vena cava. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2005;28:906 –908.
  46. Erzurum VZ, Shoup M, Borge M, Kalman PG, Rodriquez H, Silver GM. Inferior vena cava endograft to control surgically inaccessible hemorrhage. J Vasc Surg. 2003;38:1437–1439.
  47. Polanco P, Leon S, Pineda J, et al. Hepatic resection in the management of complex injury to the liver. J Trauma. 2008;65:1264 –1270.
  48. Gurusamy KS, Samraj K, Davidson BR. Routine drainage for uncomplicated liver resection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(3):CD006232.
  49. Noyes LD, Doyle DJ, McSwain NE. Septic complications associated with the use of peritoneal drains in liver trauma. J Trauma. 1988;28: 337–346.
  50. Fabian TG, Croce MA, Stanford GG, et al. Factors affecting morbidity following hepatic trauma. A prospective analysis of 482 injuries. Ann Surg 1991;213:540 –547.
  51. Mullins RJ, Stone HH, Dunlop WE, Strom PR. Hepatic trauma: evaluation of routine drainage. South Med J. 1985;78:259 –261.
  52. Kozar RA, Moore JB, Niles SE, et al. Complications of nonoperative management of high-grade blunt hepatic injuries. J Trauma. 2005;59: 1066–1071.
  53. Kozar RA, Moore FA, Moore EE, et al. Western Trauma Association critical decisions in trauma: nonoperative management of adult blunt hepatic trauma. J Trauma. 2009;67:1144 –1148.