Non-Operative Management of Adult Blunt
Hepatic Trauma Algorithm
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28. Kozar RA, Moore JB, Niles SE, et al. Complications of nonoperative management of high-grade blunt hepatic injuries. J Trauma. 2005;59: 1066–1071.
29. Wahl WL, Ahrns KS, Brandt MM, Franklin GA, Taheri PA. The need for early angiographic embolization in blunt liver injuries. J Trauma. 2002;52:1097–1101.
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35. Carillo E, Spain D, Wohltmann D, et al. Interventional techniques are useful adjuncts in nonoperative management of hepatic injuries. J Trauma. 1999;46:619–622; discussion 622–624.
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39. Cuft RF, Cogbill TH, Lambert PJ. Nonoperative management of blunt liver trauma: the value of follow up abdominal computed tomographic scans. Amer Surg. 2000;66:332–336.
40. Howdieshell TR, Purvis J, Bates WB, Teeslink CR. Biloma and biliary fistula following hepatorraphy for liver trauma: incidence, natural history, and management. Am Surg. 1995;61:165–168.
41. Sugimoto K, Asari Y, Sakaguchi T, Owada T, Maekawa K. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in the nonsurgical management of blunt liver injury. J Trauma. 1993;35:192–199.
42. Cogbill TH, Moore EE, Jurkovich GJ, Feliciano DV, Morris JA, Mucha P. Severe hepatic trauma: a multi-center experience with 1,335 injuries. J Trauma. 1988;28:1433–1438.
43. Carillo EH, Reed DN, Gordon L, Spain DA, Richardson JD. Delayed laparoscopy facilitates the management of biliary peritonitis in patients with complex liver injuries. Surg Endosc. 2001;15:319 –322.
44. Franklin GA, Richardson JD, Brown AL, et al. Prevention of bile peritonitis by laparoscopic evacuation and lavage after nonoperative treatment of liver injuries. Am Surg. 2007;73:611–616; discussion 616–617.
45. Letoublin C, Chen Y, Arvieux C, et al. Delayed celiotomy or laparoscopy as part of the nonoperative management of blunt hepatic trauma. World J Surg. 2008;32:1189 –1193.
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